"I want to say to you, read the book, the Pearl of Great Price, and read the Book of Abraham. The Pearl of Great Price I hold to be one of the most intelligent, one of the most religious books that the world has ever had; but more than that, to me the Pearl of Great Price is true in its name. It contains an ideal of life that is higher and grander and more glorious than I think is found in the pages of any other book unless it be the Holy Bible. It behooves us to read these things, understand them: and I thank God when they are attacked, because it brings to me, after a study and thought, back to the fact that what God has given He has given, and He has nothing to retract." - Levi Edgar Young, Conference Report (April 1913), 74

Saturday, July 31, 2010

Commentary on the Book of Abraham Bibliography

This Book of Abraham Bibliography primarily references articles and books that are currently under copyright protection and links to some limited online material. Publications in the public domain are posted on this site separately as documents. This bibliographic collection is intentionally selective because there is a considerable volume of material online that discusses the Book of Abraham, and an exhaustive compilation would be unnecessarily redundant. Much of the material online provides no meaningful contribution to the discussion and simply repeats the discussions and assertions already posited in the articles that are included in this collection. Accordingly, while this collection is subjective, I believe it fairly represents meaningful publications (online or otherwise) regarding the Book of Abraham.  There are also numerous references to Abraham and teachings from the Book of Abraham from General Conferences over the last 180+ years, which would require an entirely separate bibliography. I hope to accomplish this some day; in the meantime, Apostolic and other General Authority teachings on, or from, the Book of Abraham will be discussed separately in individual posts.

Inevitably I expect that at least two questions will result from referencing certain information in the bibliography. First, fellow Latter-day Saints may ask why I am including literature that is decidedly anti-Mormon; and second, critics may inquire as to why I have not included information contained on their sites, or other sites critical of the Book of Abraham. In order to preempt these questions, I will respond to both.

In response to the first question, I should reiterate my purpose, as stated in the Introduction. The Book of Abraham is a true book of scripture. It is not the purpose of this site to test the truthfulness of that claim. The truthfulness of the Book of Abraham, as well as any other book of scripture, can only be ascertained privately by revelation from the Lord. The purpose of this site is to study the Book of Abraham as a religious text, as well as the book's provenance, exegetical commentaries, historicity, and other contextual studies. Since there is much debate regarding the Book of Abraham, particularly its translation and historicity, documenting the related apologetic discussions includes knowing and understanding the critical arguments (D&C 123, especially vs. 4-6). Additionally, as the Spirit has, does, and will testify that the book is inspired, we are obligated to seek further knowledge in relation to this book of scripture. It is not justified for us to dismiss all critic's arguments simply because they have a prejudice against the scriptures and against Joseph Smith; rather, let us dismiss their prejudice and evaluate the merits of any meaningful contributions. By so doing, we may better understand the strength of our own position, and reassess any weaknesses in our assumptions regarding the Book of Abraham. Different perspectives, based on the fruit of other's research and expertise, may shed light on certain issues that could augment our understanding of this sacred text. 

In response to the second question, I should reiterate what I have stated above. The shear volume of Book of Abraham information on the web is far too much to keep up with or attempt to document. However, and more significantly, the large majority of websites critiquing the Book of Abraham, in my experience, do not provide substantive contributions that are unique to the study of the subject.  Most of these sites simply repeat the same arguments made by others, whose publications are included in the bibliography. Some of these sites purposefully distort the arguments in order to present Joseph Smith in a negative light. They do so by manipulating their research, or other's research, in presenting their position on the Book of Abraham and Joseph Smith to achieve a predetermined outcome. In other words, they use "cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive" (Ephesians 4:14).  Lastly, this bibliography primarily focuses on published works, with few exceptions. 

If my bibliography is deficient because it does not include meaningful research, please let me know and upon reviewing the material I will consider updating the bibliography. 

"But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things..." (John 14:26) - "Prove all things, hold fast that which is good" (1 Thess. 5:21)

Saturday, July 17, 2010

A Collection of Hypocephali

Last updated May 18, 2012


Egyptian Museum in Cairo1

There are approximately 100 known hypocephali that have been preserved.2 The following images are provided for convenience in comparing the similarities and differences between each hypocephalus. Some images are public domain, having been published in books, journals, and periodicals where copyrights have expired.  Other images are used by permission and are copyright protected; my sincere appreciation for those who have allowed me to post these pictures. Any contributions to this post by way of pictures taken or renditions thereof, will be greatly appreciated, and contributions will, of course, be attributed to the provider. Eventually I'd like to have all known hypocephali available here.  Lastly, if any errors are contained in the information below, please contact me at mcbarka at hotmail.com.


Sheshonq Hypocephalus (Facsimile 2 in the Book of Abraham);
Times and Seasons, Vol 3, No. 10 (March 15, 1842), Pg 720-721;
also available online at http://www.lds.org/ (here)


Hypocephalus 8445 in the British Musuem (unnamed owner);
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, May 6, 1884):185; also available


Tasherenkohns Hypocephalus 8445a British Museum 37909;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, February 5, 1884):107; also available online
at http://www.britishmuseum.org/ (here), identified as Tasheritkhons


Hypocephalus 8445a, British Museum (unnamed owner) 37095;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, May 6, 1884):185


Hypocephalus 8445a, British Museum 37907 (unnamed owner);
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Mar 4, 1884):129; also available


  Har Hypocephalus 8445c in the British Museum 35875;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Jan 8, 1884):52


Neshorpakhered Hypocephalus 8445e, British Museum 36188;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Mar 4, 1884):129; available online at:


Asiemkheb Hypocephalus 8445f in the British Musuem 37908;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, May 6, 1884):185; also available online at
http://www.britishmuseum.org/ (here); identified as Hesikheb


Shai-enen Hypocephalus of the Henry Bruce Meux, Bart. Collection;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Dec 4, 1883):37; also published in Budge,
Egyptian Magic, 117; held in the Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels,
Belgium, 6319, available online at Global Egyptian Museum (here).


Tatu Hypocephalus in the Louvre Museum
 PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Mar 4, 1884):126


Harnetatf Hypocephalus 8446 in the British Museum, Henry Salt Collection;
PSBA Vol 6 (14th Session, Apr 1, 1884):171; also available online at
http://www.britishmuseum.org/ (here), identified as Hornedjitef
The colors here are semi-inverted; this hypo is black with yellow inscription.


Takarheb Hypocephalus, National Archaeological Museum, Florence, Italy, 5704;
Archaeologia: or, Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Vol 36 (1855):174
available online at Global Egyptian Museum (here)


 Hypocephalus (bronze), Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10691 (unnamed owner);
Abydos, Part I (The Egypt Exploration Fund, 1902), Plate LXXVI, G.50.B;
available online at Religious Education Archive (here)


Djed-Hor Hypocephalus from Abydos (bronze);
Abydos, Part I (The Egypt Exploration Fund, 1902), Plate LXXVII, G.50.D;
Held in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston http://www.mfa.org/ (here).
Note: illustration excludes two individuals on the boat in the middle panel  


Zed-her Hypocephalus from Abydos (bronze), 37330 British Museum;
Abydos, Part I (The Egypt Exploration Fund, 1902), Plate LXXVII, G.50.C
E.A. Wallis Budge identifies this hypocephalus as Tche-hra (or Tche-her) in:
British Museum: A Guide to the First and Second Egyptian Rooms, 135 and
Mummy: A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology, 477;
available online at http://www.britishmuseum.org/ (here)


Hypocephalus from the Walter Myers Collection, England (unnamed owner);
PSBA Vol 7 (15th Session, Jun 2, 1885):213


Hypocephalus from the Walter L. Nash Collection (unnamed owner);
PSBA Vol 19 (27 Session, Apr 6, 1897):146


Back of Hypocephalus from the Waler L. Nash Collection (above);
PSBA Vol 19 (27th Session, Apr 6, 1897):146


Hypocephalus (unnamed owner);
Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol 33
(119th Session, May 8, 1899):472


Tashenkhons Hypocephalus from the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford;
Available online at http://www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/ (here).  Used by permission.


Tashenhapy Hypocephalus from the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford;
Available online at www.ancient-egypt.co.uk (here). Used by permission.


Hypocephalus (unnamed owner);
(C) Petrie Museum (University College London); available online at:
Also, in Petrie's, Amulets (1914), 111 (Plate XX, 134b)


Back of Hypocephalus above from University College in London;
Amulets (Petrie 1914), 111 (Plate XX, 134a)


Hypocephalus (unnamed owner);
(C) Petrie Museum (University College London); available online at:
http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/ (here); used by permission. 
Also, in Petrie's Amulets (1914), 111 (Plate XX, 134c)


Hypocephalus (unnamed onwer);
(C) Petrie Museum (University College London); available online at:


Hypocephalus, Victoria Museum of Egyptian Antiquities (unnamed owner);
Per: www.gustavianum.uu.se (here).  Used by permission.


Hypocephalus, British Museum 73705 (unnamed owner); available
online at www.britishmuseum.org (here); used by permission.


Back of Hypocephalus, British Museum 73705; available
online at www.britishmuseum.org (here), used by permission.


Hypocephalus, British Museum 74908, (unnamed owner);
available online at www.britishmuseum.org (here), used by permission.


 Ta(net)irt Hypocephalus, Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, Netherlands;
available online at Global Egyptian Museum (here) and Flickr (here);
used by permission.


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10686 (unnamed owner);
available online at Religious Education Archive (here); 
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


Reverse of 10686 above;
M.G. Daressy, Textes et Dessins Magiques, Pl. XIII


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10688 (unnamed owner);
available online at Religious Education Archive (here);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10699 (unnamed owner);
available online at Religious Education Archive (here);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10685 (unnamed owner);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10687 (unnamed owner);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10692 (unnamed owner);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden; also see Michael Lyon's
rendition in Appreciating Hypocephali as Works of Art and Faith, pg 26 (figure 12).


Hypocephalus, Egyptian Museum in Cairo 10700 (unnamed owner);
used by permission, courtesy of D. Kelly Ogden.


________________________________
1 Image of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is posted by permission, courtesy of James L. Carroll; per james.jlcarroll.net (here).
2 One Eternal Round (Hugh Nibley and Michael Rhodes; The Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, Brigham Young Unversity, Provo, UT, 2010), pgs 192, 230, 591; "Figure 6 of Facsimile 2," Transcript of a lecture presented as part of the FARMS Brown Bag Lecture Series (Hugh Nibley, Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1995), 2-3; Michael Lyon indicates that there are approximately 150 known hypocephali (see "Appreciating Hypocephali as Works of Art and Faith," pg 6).
3  All references above to PSBA refer to the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.

Sunday, July 4, 2010

Appreciating Hypocephali as Works of Art and Faith

by Michael Lyon

A transcript of an address delivered on March 24, 1999 in the FARMS Book of Abraham Lecture Series. This paper is posted by permission, courtesy of the Neal A. Maxwell Institute of Religious Scholarship, Brigham Young University; my sincere appreciation.

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